Transitioning to safely managed water services

Risks and opportunities of self-supply for vulnerable
populations

This research examines the risks and benefits associated with self-supplied water sources used by poor households, particularly with respect to water quality and supply availability throughout the year.

Research partners will jointly identify ways for governments and development partners to engage with self-supplied water services, towards a transition to safely-managed water services for all.

The research involves partnerships between UTS Institute for Sustainable Futures, Universitas Indonesia, the University of the South Pacific, UNICEF and government partners.

Project map

Vanuatu

Indonesia

Team and partners

Professor Juliet Willetts

Professor Juliet Willetts

Research Director
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Tim Foster

Tim Foster

Research Director
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Diana Gonzalez Botero

Diana Gonzalez Botero

Senior Research Consultant
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Avni Kumar

Avni Kumar

Research Consultant
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Franziska Genter

Franziska Genter

PhD researcher

Dr Cindy Priadi

Dr Cindy Priadi

Vice Head of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Indonesia

Dr Krishna Kotra

Dr Krishna Kotra

Lecturer in Chemistry, The University of the South Pacific

Gita Lestari Putri

Gita Lestari Putri

Research Assistant, University of Indonesia

Heather Molitambe

Heather Molitambe

Project Assistant, The University of the South Pacific

Latest

Self-supply at World Water Week

Self-supply at World Water Week

In August 2021, the project team were involved in a session on self-supply at Stockholm World Water Week.  The discussions explored self-supply's potential for increased resilience and water security in the Asia-Pacific region. Key contributors to the session included...

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Research outputs

Self-supplied drinking water in low- and middle-income countries in the Asia-Pacific

This study analysed 77 datasets from 26 countries to estimate the prevalence of self-supplied drinking water, and its associated trends in LMICs in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific. When factoring in temporal trends, results suggest that >760 million people—or 31% of the population—relied on self-supply for their drinking water in these regions in 2018, with the number of users increasing by >9 million each year.

Faecal contamination of groundwater self-supply in low- and middle-income countries: Systematic review and meta-analysis

This review evaluated the evidence base on the safety of groundwater self-supply in low- and middle-income countries in relation to faecal contamination. The odds of faecal indicator bacteria being detected was significantly higher for unimproved sources and for sources in low-income countries. Self-supply was significantly more likely to be contaminated than piped supply.

Self-Supply Service Level Assessment as Drinking Water Source in Bekasi City (Case Study: Jatiluhur, Sumur Batu, and Jatirangga Villages)

This study assessed the service level attributes of self-supply, including accessibility, availability, and quality. A longitudinal monitoring method by means of a monthly survey of respondents was used to measure perceptions of taste, smell, colour, availability, and safety.

Life Cycle Cost of Self-Supply Water in Metro City

This study analysed life-cycle costs of household water systems the Metro City, Indonesia. Results suggest capital typical expenditure by households ranges between USD 16-64 for a private groundwater source, and recurrent expenditures are between USD 13-19.

Escherichia coli contamination of groundwater in Metro City, Lampung

This study was conducted to assess the level of E. coli contamination in groundwater at Metro City. E. coli was detected in 71% of water sources and the highest levels of contamination were in unprotected wells.

Effectiveness of Groundwater Boiling as Household Water Treatment in Metro and Bekasi Cities, Indonesia

This study aimed to determine the condition and effluent quality of household faecal containment facilities in Bekasi City. Less than 1% of households were found to have safely managed sanitation, and on average the effluent samples exceeded relevant quality standards for a number of parameters.

Sanitation inspection of household faecal containment in Bekasi, Indonesia

This study aimed to determine the condition and effluent quality of household faecal containment facilities in Bekasi City. Less than 1% of households were found to have safely managed sanitation, and on average the effluent samples exceeded relevant quality standards for a number of parameters.

Health risk analysis of nitrite, nitrate, and heavy metal pollution in groundwater near landfill area: A case study of the Sumur Batu village in Bekasi, Indonesia

This study assessed the risk of nitrite, nitrate, and heavy metal pollution in groundwater in Sumur Batu, an area adjacent to two landfills. The results reveal a risk of NO2 exposure for households sourcing drinking water from groundwater.

The Occurrence of Escherichia coli in Groundwater of Bekasi City (Case Study: Jatiluhur, Sumur Batu, and Jatirangga Urban Villages)

This study assessed faecal contamination levels in 255 groundwater sources in Bekasi City. The results show that E. coli was detected in 60% of groundwater sources.

Methods for verification of groundwater flow simulators (case study: Jakarta groundwater basin in the urban villages of Jatiluhur and Jatirangga, Bekasi City)

This study assessed groundwater flow simulations in relation to observed groundwater levels in Bekasi City. The results found a discordance between simulated water levels and actual water levels

Effect of boiling and water storage practices on E. coli contamination of drinking water in the city of Bekasi (case study: Jatiluhur, Sumur Batu, and Jatirangga Villages)

This study analysed the effect of boiling and water storage practices on E. coli contamination of drinking water in Bekasi City. Boiling water was found to reduce contamination of drinking water between the source and point-of-use for 67% of households.